اصطلاحات کاربردی و مخفف ها
Accident (ICAO): An incident associated with the operation of an aircraft in which the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft. Such an incident would normally require major repair or replacement of that affected component. This does not include engine failure or damage, its cowlings or accessories, damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennae, tires, brakes, fairings, small ducts or punctures in the aircraft skin. It is also defined when an aircraft is missing or completely inaccessible.
ACMI: Aircraft, Crew, Maintenance and Insurance. A type of lease normally, but not always, between two airlines, where the lessor provides the aircraft, one or more complete crews including their salaries, all maintenance for the aircraft, and hull insurance for the aircraft itself. Sometimes it will provide third-party liability cover. ACMI charges will be by the hour, but with a minimum number of hours per month guaranteed.
ACMI wet rate: Charge, normally in US$ per block hour, for an ACMI lease.
Ad hoc carrier: Cargo carrier offering aircraft for ad hoc charters.
Ad hoc charter: See Charter, ad hoc.
AGENT (AGT): The relationship existing between two parties by which one is authorized to transact certain business for the other.
Air cargo: Any property carried on an aircraft other than stores, COMAT and baggage. This includes freight, mail or express items. Also known as air cargo, airfreight. See also Aircraft, freighter; COMAT – Company Owned Material.
Aircraft, combi: An aircraft intended for the movement of passengers and cargo sharing main-deck accommodation during the flight ~ from Combination.
Aircraft, freighter: An aircraft, which is either newly constructed, or permanently or temporarily converted from passenger service, which is dedicated to carry cargo with no passenger.
Aircraft, green: Aircraft flyable but unpainted, unfurnished and basically equipped.
Aircraft hangar: Building especially constructed or converted to allow the maintenance or storage of aircraft at an airport/airfield
Aircraft pallet: A platform of standard dimensions on which goods are assembled and secured before being loaded as a complete unit onto an aircraft. It is built to interface with ball, roller or caster surfaces. See also Igloo.
Aircraft stand: A designated area on an apron intended to be used for aircraft parking.
Aircraft tow tractor: Vehicle used to maneuver aircraft on ground by towing and pushing when the aircraft is not powering movement with its own engines.
Aircraft tow-bar-less tractor: Aircraft tow tractor which does not utilize a tow bar.
Aircraft unit load device: A standard-sized aircraft container unit used to facilitate rapid loading and unloading of aircraft having compatible handling and restraint systems.
Aircraft weights: A series of weights, taken with or without various loads, of an aircraft during various stages of its operation. See also AUW; Basic Operating Weight; MLW; MRW; MTOW; MZFW; OEW; Ramp Weight; Zero Fuel Weight.
Airframe: An aircraft’s structure without power plants or aircraft systems.
Airline (ICAO): Under Article 96 of the ICAO Convention, any air transport enterprise offering or operating on a scheduled national or international basis.
Airport, alternate: An airport at which an aircraft may land if a landing at the intended airport becomes inadvisable. If an aircraft must re-route in flight, this may be the original departure airport.
Airport charges: Charges levied by airport owners or operators to airlines for landing an aircraft. These charges can include landing fees, take-off fees, airside charges and landside charges.
Airport, free: An international airport at which, provided they remain within a designated area until removal by air to a point outside the territory of the country, crew, cargo, mail and stores may be disembarked or unloaded, may remain and may be transshipped, without being subject to any Customs charges or dues or, except in special circumstances, be searched. See also Bonded stores.
Airside: The area of an airport, access to which is regulated and controlled. Normally restricted to airport personnel, aircraft crew, departing and transiting passengers and cargo ground handlers. See also Landside.
Airworthy: Describes an aircraft which meets all relevant statutory requirements of the registering country and any other required to give authority to its operation. See also Certificate of Airworthiness. C of A
Air Waybill Data: It eliminates the need for paper AWB or data re-entry.
AIR WAYBILL DATA MESSAGE (FWB): Standard Cargo-IMP message identifier for electronic Master
AOG: Aircraft on Ground – A situation in which technical failure prevents an aircraft from moving or taking off. This is not normally at its regular maintenance base. It applies to parts needed to return an aircraft to service and have first boarding priority.
Apron (ICAO): A defined area on an airport intended to accommodate aircraft for the purpose of loading or unloading cargo, re-fuelling, parking or maintenance.
APU: Auxiliary Power Unit. Item carried on an aircraft for tasks such as electrical power, main engine starting, ground air-conditioning etc.
ARR: Consignment arrived on a specific flight
ATM: Air Traffic Management
AUTOMATED MANIFEST SYSTEM (AMS): A Customs & Border Protection Agency system used to notify the details of shipments loaded onto a specific flight.
AUW: All Up Weight. Total weight of aircraft under defined conditions or at a specific time during flight. Not to be confused with MTOW.
AVI: Live Animal
AWB: Air Waybill – The document made out by or on behalf of the shipper which, when used, evidences the contract between the shipper and carrier(s) for carriage of the goods over routes of the carrier(s) and proof of receipt of the goods for shipment.
AWD: Arrival Documents Delivered.
Base: Bottom of container or pallet which comes into contact with the floor.
BAF: Bunker Adjustment Factor – charged by shipping companies to alleviate fluctuating Bunkering costs (Ship’s fuel oil).
Basic operating weight: MTOW minus payload.
Belt loader: Equipment using a belt to load bulk freight, baggage and mail into an aircraft.
B/L: Bill of Lading. A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company. It serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage and a receipt for goods.
Block hour: Chargeable hour for which an aircraft is leased to a lessee during a wet lease.
Block time: Time elapsed from the moment an aircraft starts to leave its loading point to the moment it comes to rest at its destination. Also known as block-to-block, chock-to-chock.
Bonded stores: Warehousing under the direct or indirect control of Customs authorities where dutiable goods are stored prior to entry into the country, upon which the duty will be paid.
Broker: An individual or company who, for a fee, locates and arranges the hire of a cargo aircraft, with or without crew, for a client or performs the formalities for clearing cargo from bonded areas by paying tax,…
Bulk cargo: All cargo not packed in containers or on a pallet.
Bulk loader: Self-drive belt conveyor vehicle for loading bulk cargo into an aircraft or a vessel.
C2K: Cargo 2000, is an industry initiative aiming at implementing a new quality management system for the worldwide air cargo industry. The objective is simple to implement processes backed by quality standards that are measurable to improve the efficiency of air cargo.
C of A: Certificate of Airworthiness. Certificate that an individual aircraft meets all relevant legal and safety standards.
CAA: Civil Aviation Authority.
CAO: Civil Aviation Organization
CAO: Cargo Aircraft Only
Cabotage: To carry passengers/cargo within a country by an airline of another country on a route with origin/destination in its home country. See also, Freedom. To carry cargo from one point of own country to another point of the same country via territory of another country.
CARGO (CGO): Also referred to as “goods”, means any property carried or to be carried on an aircraft, other than mail or other property carried under terms of an international postal convention, baggage or property of the carrier; provided that baggage moving under an air waybill or a shipment record is cargo.
Cargo dock: Loading bay of a cargo terminal.
Cargo door: Door in aircraft designed to take freight, vehicles or containers.
Cargo door, nose: Cargo door in nose of aircraft hinged to swing upwards or to one side, to allow easier access to general cargo or access for cargo too large to pass through side cargo door.
Cargo door, rear: Cargo door in rear of aircraft often hinged to become a ramp for access. Some aircraft types open at the rear by swinging the tail housing to one side.
Cargo door, side: Cargo door generally on portside of an aircraft.
Cargo ground handling: Function of moving cargo from terminal to aircraft side and vice versa while at all times the cargo is on the airport’s premises. Can be performed by the air carrier, a second-party airline providing such services, the airport authority or an independent ground handling company.
Cargo hold: General term for the area of an aircraft where cargo is stowed for a journey. Can be entire inside space on a freighter, that space not used by passengers on a combi, or lower deck area in a passenger aircraft.
Cargo loader: Mobile equipment with elevating platforms and powered rollers for loading and unloading ULDs on aircraft.
Cargo ramp: Airside area upon which freighter aircraft are parked for loading or unloading of cargo.
Cargo village: Term sometimes used to group air cargo operations at an airport, especially newly constructed warehousing developments.
Carnet: Customs document allowing the temporary importation of goods without duty, conditional on the goods being re-exported in the same state as when they entered the country. These goods cannot be altered, used in manufacture, or disposed of without the duty being paid as if they had been imported normally.
Cargo Declaration: Information submitted prior to or on arrival or departure of a means of transport for commercial use that provides the particulars required by the Customs relating to cargo brought to or removed from the Customs territory.
Cargo-IMP: Cargo Interchange Message Procedures. The Cargo-IMP messages have been developed by the member airlines of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the Air Transport Association of America (ATA) as Standard IATA/ATA Cargo Interchange Message Procedures. The purpose of these messages is to ensure uniformity, mutual understanding, accuracy and economy in inter-airline data exchange and in data exchange between airlines and other air cargo industry participants including agents, brokers and customs. The messages are used in both manual and computerized environments.
Cargo IMP version of EDIFACT: Cargo FACT – Cargo IMP version of UN Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport – EDIFACT
Cartage: Refers to intercity haulage by trucks
CAC: Cargo Accounting Advice – Cargo Advice of Correction Message
CAF: Currency Adjustment Factor – charged by shipping companies to alleviate exchange rate deficiencies
CASS: CARGO ACCOUNTS SETTLEMENT SYSTEM -A system of accounting and settling accounts between CASS Airlines and appointed IATA Cargo Agents.
CCA: CARGO CHARGES CORRECTION ADVICE – The document used for the notification of changes to the transportation charges and/or the other charges and/or the method of payment and even other amendments in AWB details.
CCD: Consignment Cleared
CCS: Cargo Community System
CDR: Cargo Damage Report
CDMP: Cargo 2000 Data Management Platform
CFR: Cost & Freight
CFS: Container Freight Station – usually applies to LCL cargo where cargo is packed and then dispatched overseas and then has to be unpacked at destination before delivery to consignee.
Charter, ad hoc: A non-scheduled, non-common carrier cargo service hired to move a single shipment. See also scheduled freight service.
Charter, split: Where an intermediary such as a freight forwarder charters an aircraft and re-sells capacity to third parties.
CIP: Carriage and Insurance paid to
CIF: Cost, Insurance & Freight
CIM: Convention International concernat le transport des Marchandises de fer
CIR: Customs Inventory Report Message
CITIES: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
CNEE: Consignee – The person whose name appears on the air waybill or in the shipment record as the party to who the goods are to be delivered by the carrier.
CM: Cargo Manifest – A document listed by AWB numbers loaded on a flight. It is mainly used for customs entry/exit.
CMR: Convention on the contract for the international carriage of goods by road.
CNS: Communication, Navigation & Surveillance
CO: Certificate of Origin.
COC: Carrier’s own container. When shipper uses containers supplied by the carrier.
Cockpit: A compartment to accommodate pilots and other crew members. See also Flight-deck.
COE: UN Committee of Experts
COD: Cash on Delivery
COM: Company Mail
COMAT: Company Owned Material: An airline’s own property such as spare-parts, station supplies, ticket stock, etc…, carried in the airline’s own aircraft.
CONDITIONS OF CARRIAGE: The terms and conditions established by a carrier in respect to its carriage.
CONDITIONS OF CONTRACT: The terms and conditions shown on the air waybill or with any consent by the shipper that shipment record may be used.
CONNECTING CARRIER: A carrier whose service the cargo is to be transferred for onward connecting transportation.
CPM: Container Pallet Message
CPT: Carriage Paid to
CRC: Consignment Reported to Customs
CSC: Cargo Services Conference
CSI: Custom Supplementary Information Message
CSN: Custom Status Notification Message
CTM: Cargo Transfer Manifest
CU FT: Cubic Feet – 33.315 cubic feet = 1 cubic metre
CY: Container Yard
DAS: Delivered alongside Ship.
DAF: Delivered at Frontier
Dangerous goods: Articles or substances which are capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or property. Significant and strict local, national and international laws and regulatory rules govern the handling, storage and movement of such substances to and at airports.
Dangerous goods classes: Nine international classes categories dangerous goods:
Class 1 Explosives
Class 2 Gases
2.1 Flammable gases
2.2 Non-flammable gases
2.3 Toxic gases
Class 3 Flammable liquids
Class 4 Flammable solids
4.1 Flammable solids
4.2 Spontaneously combustible substances
4.3 Water reactive substances
Class 5 Oxidising substances
5.1 Oxidising substances
5.2 Organic peroxides
Class 6 Toxic substances
6.1 Poisonous substances
6.2 Infectious substances
Class 7 Radioactive materials
Class 8 Corrosives
Class 9 Miscellaneous material, including that which can only be flown on a cargo aircraft
DCM: CASS Debit or Credit Memorandum Message
DDL: Delivery Order Delivered
DDP: Delivered Duty Paid
DDU: Delivered Duty Unpaid
DEP: Consignment departed on a specific flight
DIP: Diplomatic Mail
Deck, lower: Term for cargo hold under the main deck.
Deck, main: Main floor of aircraft forming base of upper hold in freighter aircraft or where passengers and cargo are placed in a combi.
De-icing: Removal of ice accretion on an aircraft at an airport – can be done by use of fluids, heating systems and expanding rubber membranes.
Demurrage: Charge for storage in warehouse or at the border of land transportation or at origin or destination, which accrues after a given time for consignments not collected or not loaded. Also applies to delay caused to an aircraft (e.g. by a charterer). A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying the carrier’s equipment beyond the allowed free time.
Depot, Container: Container freight station or a designated area where empty containers can be picked up or dropped off.
Detention: A penalty charge against shippers or consignees for delaying carrier’s equipment beyond allowed time. Demurrage applies to cargo; detention applies to equipment.
DEQ: Delivered Ex Quay
DFLD: Definitely Loaded
DHC: Depot Handling Charge. A fee charged by the container yard for collection/delivery of containers into and out of the depot.
Diversion: Act of proceeding to an airport other than one at which landing was intended.
DLV: Delivered – Consignment Delivered
DO: Delivery Order. A cargo release document given in exchange for an original Bill of Lading. Issued by Shipping companies and Freight Forwarders to enable Consignees to collect cargo/containers ex wharf or depot.
Door to Door: Through transportation of a container and its contents from consignor to consignee. Also known as House to House. Not necessarily a through rate.
Down time: The time an aircraft is on the ground at an airport other than when it is being loaded or unloaded or made ready for flight. Also colloquially a term for the time of landing.
DS: Delivery Slip
DSN: Delivery statistic Notification
DST: Daylight Saving Time
EAP: IATA e-freight Consignment with Accompanying Documents
EAW: IATA e-freight Consignment with No Accompanying Documents
EC: European Community
ECS: Export Control System
EDI: Electronic Data Interchange
EDIFACT: Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport
ENS: Entry Summery Declaration
EORI: Economic Operator Registration and Identification.
ER: Extended Range.
ERP: Enterprise resource planning. A back end system typically used by manufacturers, shippers to manage procurement, manufacturing, shipment, settlement.
EROPS: Extended Range Twin [engine] Operations. This is a routing with a given flight time of not more than 120 or 180 minutes from a useable alternative airport.
ETA: Estimated Time of Arrival. Used to indicate when vessel is due to arrive at port.
ETOPS: Extended Twin [engine] Overwater Passenger Operations. The ability of a twin-engined aircraft to operate over large stretches of water, such as the Pacific.
e-AWB: Electronic Air Waybill
e-CAG: IATA e-freight Central Action Group
e-FMG: IATA e-freight Management Group
e-FOP: IATA e-freight Operational Procedure
Note that we can distinguish 3 types of e-FOPs:
- The generic e-FOP which is the IATA e-FOP
- The location e-FOP which is the e-FOP defined by the local BWG based on the IATA e-FOP and endorsed by the local eFMG of a specific location
- The internal e-FOP for each stakeholder which is defined by the stakeholder itself prior to adoption of e-freight
EU: European Union – Association of 25 European countries with the ultimate aim of a single entity in Europe, possessing a free trade zone and common currency. Establishes common standards for the aviation industry over all member states.
FAA: Federal Aviation Administration (USA).
FAR: Federal Aviation Regulations (USA).
FAC: Airline Confirmation Message
FAD: Advice of Discrepancy Message
FAI: Freight Agent Information Message
FAR: Adjustment Request Message
FAS: Freight Agent Supplementary Information Message
FAS: Free Alongside Ship
FBL: Freight Booked List Message
FBR: Freight Booked List Request Message
FBV: Courier Baggage Voucher Message
FCA: Free Carrier
FCA: Charges Correction Acknowledgment Message
FCB: Freight CASS Billing Message
FCC: Charge Correction Request Message
FCI: CASS Invoice Message
FCR: CASS Remittance Message
FCV: CASS VOID/Cancel AWB Message
FDA: Discrepancy Answer Message
FDD: Declaration for Dangerous Goods Data Message
FDAW: Found Air Waybill
FDCA: Found Cargo
FDAV: Found Mail Document
FDMB: Found Mail Bag.
FEU: Forty Foot Equivalent Unit i.e. 1x 40′ Container
Feeder Vessel: A short-sea vessel which transfers cargo between a central “hub” port and smaller “spoke” ports.
FFA: Freight Forwarding Answer. AWB Space Allocation Answer Message can be KK for Confirmed or NN as standby.
FFA: Freight Forwarders Associations
FFM: Airline Flight Manifest Message – Final Flight Manifest.
FFR: Freight Forwarding Request. AWB Space Allocation Request Message.
FFT: Freight Transaction Message
FFX: Cancellation Message
FHL: Consolidation List Message
FIO: Free In and Out. Cost of loading and unloading a vessel is borne by the charterer/shipper.
FIFO: Free-in, Free-out
FILO: Free-in Liner-out
Floor bearing: Maximum weight the aircraft floor can bear.
Floor load: Static and dynamic loads imposed by the payload.
FMA: Message Acknowledgment Message
FMB: Notification of Embargo Message
FMC: Change of Embargo Message
FMR: Piece Manifest Request Message
FMX: Cancellation of Embargo Message
FNA: Error Message
FOA: Allotment Information Answer Message
FOB: Free On board
FOR: Allotment Information Request Message
FPA: Piece Status Answer Message
FPM: Piece Manifest Message
FPR: Piece Status Request Message
FPU: Piece Update Message
FQA: Shipment Charges Calculation Request Answer Message
FQR: Shipment Charges Calculation Request Message
FRA: Supplementary Rate Information Request Answer Message
FRP: Irregularity Report Message
FRR: Supplementary Rate Information Request Message
Free Trade Zone – FTZ: An industrial area in which manufacturers are permitted to import raw materials or semi-assemblies for manufacturing purposes which, provided they leave the zone by air to a point outside the territory of the country, do not incur import duties.
Freedoms: There are ten international aviation freedoms.
-First Freedom: To overfly one country en-route to another.
-Second Freedom: To make a technical stop in another country.
-Third Freedom: To carry passengers/cargo from the home country to another.
-Fourth Freedom: To carry passengers/cargo to the home country from another.
-Fifth Freedom: To carry passengers/cargo between two countries by an airline of a third on a route with origin/destination in its home country. IKA/BJS/TYO by IR.
-Sixth Freedom: To carry passengers/cargo between two countries by an airline of a third on two routes connecting in its home country. DUS/DXB/IKA by EK.
-Seventh Freedom: To carry passengers/cargo between two countries by an airline of a third on a route outside its home country. IKA/BOM by EK
-Eighth Freedom or Cabotage: To carry passengers/cargo within a country by an airline of another country on a route with origin/destination in its home country. DXB/IKA/BND/DXB by EK.
-Ninth Freedom or Stand-Alone Cabotage: To carry passengers/cargo within a country by an airline of another country. THR/AWZ by EK.
-True Domestic: To carry passengers/cargo by an airline within its home country. THR/BND by W5.
FSA: Status Answer Message
FSB: Substitute AWB Data Message
FSL: Multiple Status Update List Message
FSR: Status Request Message
FSU: Status Update Message
FSU/ARR: Freight Status Update/Arrived
FSU/BKD: Freight Status Update/Booked
FSU/DEP: Freight Status Update/Departed
FSU/DIS: Freight Status Update/Discrepancy
FSU/DLV: Freight Status Update/Delivered
FSU/MAN: Freight Status Update/Manifested
FSU/NFD: Freight Status Update/Notified Party
FSU/PRE: Freight Status Update/Pre-Manifested
FSU/RCF: Freight Status Update/Received Cargo from Flight
FSU/RCS: Freight Status Update/Received Cargo from Shipper
FSU/RCT: Freight Status Update/Received Cargo for Transit
FTA: Rate Information Answer Message
FTR: Rate Information Request Message
FUA: ULD Space Allocation Answer Message
Fuel burn: Rate at which fuel is burnt during a flight, normally given in tonnes per hour.
FUM: ULD Manifest Message
FUR: ULD Space Allocation Request Message
FVA: Schedule and Availability Information Answer Message
FVR: Schedule and Availability Information Request Message
FWB: Air Waybill Data Message
FWC: AWB Charges Collect Message
FWR: AWB Data Request Message
FYT: CCS Free Text Message
FZA: House Waybill Data Request Message
FZB: House Waybill Data Message
FZC: House Waybill Status Request Message
FZD: House Waybill Status Answer Message
FZE: House Waybill Status Update Message
Gallon (UK): Liquid volume equal to 8 pints or 4.54 liters.
Gallon (US): Liquid volume equal to 0.83 UK gallon or 3.79 liters.
GHA: Ground Handling Agent
GPU: Ground Power Unit. Equipment used to provide power to an aircraft to run vital services while stationary on the ground.
Goods Declaration: A statement made in the form prescribed by Customs, by which the persons interested indicate the Customs procedure to be applied to the goods and furnish the particulars which the Customs require to be declared for the application of that procedure. Note: the persons interested may be the importer, the exporter, the owner, the consignee, the carrier, etc., of the goods or their legal representative, according to the country concerned.
Ground support equipment: All the handling facilities employed to service an aircraft at an airport – such as tractors, steps, fuelling tanks, food and cleaning supplies.
GRI: Abbreviation for “General Rate Increase.” Used to describe an across-the-board tariff rate increase implemented by conference members and applied to base rates.
GSA: General Sales Agent
GSSA: General Sales & Services Agent.
GST: Goods and Services Tax – A tax imposed by the government. In Singapore it is currently pegged at 3% of CIF value on all general goods imported into Singapore. Varying tariffs apply for dutiable items such as alcohol and tobacco.
HAWB: House Air Waybill – Document issued by an international air Freight Forwarder under the terms of their own tariff.
Hazardous goods: Another term for dangerous goods. Also known as Hazardous material. See also Dangerous goods.
Hazchem: International warning panel designed to alert as to the dangers, characteristics and appropriate accident response to hazardous chemicals and liquids.
Hazmat: Another term for hazardous material.
Hub, freight: An airport used by an integrator or scheduled freight airline to sort and disperse goods through its network from incoming flights or road services operated by the airline or its agents. A hub can be a freight-only airport or a facility at a general airport.
HS code: Harmonized Codes. An international goods classification system for describing cargo in international trade under a single commodity-coding scheme.
IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency
IATA: International Air Transport Association. International Air Transport Authority. Organization whose aims are to promote safe, regular and economical air transport as well as providing means of collaboration among international air transport companies. Its specialist publication function establishes standards for the handling of dangerous goods and livestock by air, as well as published standard rates for cargo transport.
IATA BoG: IATA Board of Governors
IATA CCM: IATA Country Cargo Managers are the first point of contact for any IATA e-freight issue in their country
IATA RMSCS: IATA Regional Manager Supply Chain Solutions
ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization. International Civil Aviation Organization. Branch of the United Nations governing the aviation relationships between member countries.
ICS: Import Control System
IDG: Instruction for Dispatch of Goods
Igloo: Bottomless shell made of fiberglass, metal etc… conforming to aircraft dimensions, produced to cover the maximum useable area of a pallet to which it is secured in flight.
IN-BOND TRANSPORTATION: Transporting a transit cargo shipment in bond without clearing customs to the destination.
Insurance, airline: There are four main types of insurance involved with most common air freighter operations:
-Hull Insurance: This is taken out by the owner of the aircraft in order to protect his investment against damage to, or loss of, the aircraft itself. A charterer should never be involved with this as it is usually the responsibility of the owner, and its premiums should be already included in any charter or lease price.
-Third Party Liability: This is to protect the owner or operator against claims that may be made by other people, for example if the undercarriage damaged the roof of a house when the aircraft was landing, or if the wingtip hit another aircraft while maneuvering on the ground. Once again, it is the owner’s responsibility to provide this cover all the time its crews are flying the aircraft. However, on dry leases the owner may not want to be responsible for events which take place while the aircraft is under someone else’s control, so in that case the third party may be required to provide cover. Amounts of liability that third party insurance covers can be substantial.
-War Risk Insurance: This is applied by insurance companies and underwriters if the aircraft intends to operate into countries or areas considered by them to be dangerous. If the aircraft operates to these areas without the additional war-risk cover, then the Hull and Third-Party cover may become invalid, and thus the whole operation becomes illegal. The cover can be taken out for a specific period, or on a ‘per flight’ basis.
-Cargo Insurance: International regulations demand that an airline will provide insurance cover for all cargo carried on its aircraft, up to a specified limit. It applies throughout the entire period during which the cargo is in the care of that airline and covers theft, damage, loss or total destruction in the event of an accident.
INTERLINE CARRIAGE: The carriage over the routes of two or more air carriers.
INTERLINE CARRIER: The carriage over the route of two or more air carriers.
Integrator: A non-common-carrier freight service regulated by a published timetable and operating to a network of stations exclusively to its own benefit; also provides liveried vehicles and staff to manage the entire transport of the consignment.
IMCO: International Maritime Consultative Organization. A forum in which most major maritime nations participate and through which recommendations for the carriage of dangerous goods, bulk commodities, and maritime regulations become internationally acceptable.
IOSA: IATA Operational Safety Audit. It is an evaluation system designed to assess the operational management and control system of an airline.
JRN: Job Reference Number
KYOTO CONVENTION: International Convention on the simplification and harmonization of customs procedures.
Knot: One nautical mile per hour/1.85 kph/1.15 mph.
Landside: Those parts of an airport not considered airside. Access is open to all persons legally entitled to be at an airport, subject to local and national laws.
Lease, dry: Sometimes called a Bare Hull Charter. In this case, the lessee has to supply his own crew (with all the associated costs), provide all his own maintenance, and obtain own insurance coverage. It is normally charged at a fixed rate per month, plus an hourly charge for engine overhauls or replacements, and major checks.
Lease, wet: Hire of aircraft from another carrier or lessor complete with flight crew, where major servicing is carried out by the owner but with hirer’s logo and insignia temporarily applied.
LCL: Less Container Load
LETTER OF CREDIT (L/C): A letter from a bank, on behalf of a buyer, addressed to the seller authorizing him or her to draw drafts for a stipulated amount, under specified terms and to provide eventual payment for drafts within a given time.
LILO: Liner In, Liner Out
LIFO = Liner In, Free Out
Load factor: Revenue tonne-miles (RTM) as a percentage of RTM available.
Load factor (SI): Revenue tonne-kms (RTK) as a percentage of RTK available.
Loading chart: Chart displaying correct locations of cargo in transport aircraft.
Loading contour: Maximum aircraft envelope for the purposes of stowage inside the aircraft, having taken into account the required clearance between the aircraft wall and the load. See also Maximum aircraft envelope.
Loading diagram: Detailed plan of cargo floor and underfloor holds on which responsible officer marks position and masses of all cargo and final centre of gravity position.
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): This is the lowest point at which enough vapours have been released from a given hazardous liquid to cause a fire when in contact with an ignition source. Also known as flash point.
MAM: Mail Advisory Message
MAN: Consignment manifested on a specific flight
MAWB: Master Air Waybill. The carrier’s airway bill issued to cover a consolidated shipment tendered by a forwarder or consolidator.
MC99: Montreal Convention 1999 – Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air, done at Montreal on 28 May 1999 (also referred as MC99)
MCO: Miscellaneous Charges Order. A document issued by a carrier in conjunction with a passenger ticket and baggage check and which may be used only for payment of baggage shipped as cargo.
MIP: Message Improvement Program.
MITA: Multilateral Interline Traffic Agreement
MLD: Mail Label Data Message
MLW: Maximum Landing Weight.
MP4: Montreal Protocol 4 – Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air, signed at Warsaw, 12 October 1929 and amended by Montreal Protocol No. 4
MRN: Movement Reference Number
MRW: Maximum Ramp Weight.
MSAW: Missing AWB
MSAV: Missing mail Document
MSCA: Missing Cargo
MSMB: Missing Mail Bag
MTOW: Maximum Take Off Weight (MRW minus taxi and run-up fuel).
MUP: Milestone Update – Cargo2000 status message
MONTREAL PROTOCOL No.4: Protocol to amend the Convention for the Unification of certain rules relating to International Carriage by Air.
MZFW: Maximum Zero Fuel Weight (MTOW minus useable fuel and other consumables).
NAFTA: North American Free Trade Association. Association of USA, Canada and Mexico to promote a free trade area between the three countries similar to the EU.
Nautical mile (UK): Length of 6 080 ft or 1.85 km.
NCV: No Custom Value
NCTS: New Computerized Transit System
Negotiable B/L: The B/L is a title document to the goods, issued “to the order of” a party, usually the shipper, whose endorsement is required to effect is negotiation. Thus, a shipper’s order (negotiable) B/L can be bought, sold, or traded while goods are in transit and is commonly used for letter-of-credit transactions. The buyer must submit the original B/L to the carrier in order to take possession of the goods.
NFD: Notified – Arrival Informed
NOBC: Neutral On Board Courier
NOTOC: Special Load Notification to Captain
Noise abatement climb: Means of flying an aircraft from an airport so as to climb rapidly until a built-up area is reached and thereafter reducing power to maintain climb until the area is overflown or 5 000 ft is reached.
Noise restrictions: Laws concerning permitted noise levels at airports aimed at preventing disturbance to local residents, most widely felt by aircraft operators who must reduce noise levels from aircraft and airports which are restricting the type of aircraft able to land. Some airports are actively marketing the lack of noise restrictions as a user benefit. See also Chapter III.
NOTAM: Notice containing information essential to airport personnel connected with flight operations.
NVD: No Value Declared
NVOCC: A cargo consolidator in ocean trades who buy space from a carrier and sub-sell it to smaller shippers. The NVOCC issues bills of lading, publishes tariffs and otherwise conducts itself as an ocean common carrier, except that it will not provide the actual ocean or intermodal service
OBC: On Board Courier
OBL: Ocean Bill of Lading. A contract for transportation between a shipper and a carrier. It also evidences receipt of the cargo by the carrier. A bill of lading shows ownership of the cargo and, if made negotiable, can be bought, sold or traded while the goods are in-transit.
OBO: Ore- Bulk – Oil Vessels
OEW: Operating Empty Weight.
OFLD: Off loaded
OGA: Other Government Agencies
OSI: Other Supplementary Information
Out-of-gauge: Description of cargo exceeding standard dimensions.
OVCD: Over Carried
Over Height Container, Sea: Cargo more than 243.84 cm (8 feet) high which thus cannot fit into a standard container.
Payload: Disposable load generating revenue. Also known as cargo payload.
Pound: Weight equal to 16 ounces or 0.453 kg.
POD: Proof of Delivery
POD: Port of Discharge. Port at which cargo will be discharged from the vessel.
POL: Port of Loading
PSN: Proper Shipping Name
Q: Rate Class code in airline industry showing the quantity weight of 45 KG and above and used in the rate class box of the AWB
QC: Designation used to indicate the ability of an aircraft to be changed quickly from passenger to cargo use and vice versa.
QRT: Quick Ramp Transfer
R: Rate class code on the AWB showing the that a reduced class rate has been applied and used in the rate class box of AWB
Ramp weight: Maximum weight of aircraft at start of flight (MTOW plus taxi and run-up fuel).
Range: Distance an aircraft can fly or is permitted to fly with a specified load and (usually) after making allowances for specified manoeuvres such as diversions, stand-off, go-around etc.
Range, ferry: Range an aircraft can fly empty between one point and another.
Revenue-Tonne: A ton on which the shipment is freighted. If cargo is rated as weight or measure (W/M), whichever produces the highest revenue will be considered the revenue ton. Weights are based on metric tons and measures are based on cubic meters. RT=1 MT or 1 CBM.
RCF: Received Freight
RCP: Rate Construction Point
RCS: Ready for Carriage Shipment
RFS: Road Feeder Service. Surface transportation arranged by a carrier to/from his gateway stations to another airport. Allows a carrier to offer services to a city to which it does not fly aircraft. Some such services are allocated an airline flight number.
RO / RO: A shortening of the term, “Roll On/Roll Off.” A method of ocean cargo service using a vessel with ramps which allows wheeled vehicles to be loaded and discharged without cranes.
RT: A Revenue Ton (RT) is a shipping term describing the measurement on which the shipment is freighted. If cargo is rated as weight or measure, whichever produces the highest revenue will be considered the revenue ton. Weights are based on metric tons and measures are based on cubic meters
S: Rate class code on the AWB reflecting a surcharge class rate has been applied and it being shown in the rate class box of the AWB
SBA: Surface Transportation Booking Request Answer Message
SBR: Surface Transportation Booking Request Message
SCI: Special Customs Information
SCI: Surface Transportation Charges Information Message
SCR: Specific Commodity Rate
SDR: Special Drawing Rights. A reserve asset used as a unit of account, as defined by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Sea Way Bill: Document indicating the goods were loaded onboard when a B/L is not needed. Typically used when a company is shipping goods to itself.
Security: Combination of measures and human and material resources intended to safeguard civil aviation against acts of unlawful interference.
Self-handling: When an airline handles ground tasks, such as loading, in-house.
SHC: Special Handling Code (EAW/EAP)
Ship, (Type of):
–Bulk Carriers: All vessels designed to carry bulk cargo such as grain, fertilizers, ore, and oil.
–Combination Passenger and Cargo Ships: Ships with a capacity for 13 or more passengers.
–Freighters: Breakbulk vessels both refrigerated and unrefrigerated, containerships, partial containerships, roll-on/roll-off vessels, and barge carriers.
–Barge Carriers: Ships designed to carry barges; some are fitted to act as full containerships and can carry a varying number of barges and containers at the same time. At present this class includes two types of vessels LASH and Sea-Bee.
–General Cargo Carriers: Breakbulk freighters, car carriers, cattle carriers, pallet carriers and timber carriers.
–Full Containerships: Ships equipped with permanent container cells, with little or no space for other types of cargo.
–Partial Containerships: Multipurpose containerships where one or more but not all compartments are fitted with permanent container cells. Remaining compartments are used for other types of cargo.
–Roll-on/Roll-off vessels: Ships specially designed to carry wheeled containers or trailers using interior ramps.
–Tankers: Ships fitted with tanks to carry liquid cargo such as: crude petroleum and petroleum products; chemicals, Liquefied gasses(LNG and LPG), wine, molasses, and similar product tankers.
SI: Supplementary Information
SLA: Service level agreement
SLI: Shipper Letter of Instruction. The document containing instructions by the shipper or shipper’s agent for preparing documents and forwarding.
Small aircraft (UK): Aircraft between 17 000 kg and 40 000 kg.
SMI: Standard Message Identifier
SOC: Shipper’s own container
SPA: Surface Transportation Planning Answer Message
SPA: Interline Contract between two airlines to carry cargo
SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS: Directions for handling a shipment and/or delivery directions for a shipment.
Specific fuel consumption: Rate at which aviation fuel is consumed divided by power and thrust developed – this becomes a measure of engine efficiency. It is also used as a basis for the hiring charge of an aircraft.
SPH codes: Special Handling codes
SPR: Surface Transportation Planning Request Message
SPX: Surface Transportation Planning Cancellation Message
SSU: Surface Transportation Status Update Message
SSPD: Short Shipped
STA: General Status Answer Message
STC: Said to Contain
STM: Surface Transportation Movement Message
STR: General Status Request Message
Stuffing: Putting cargo into a container.
Syntax Rule: The agreed rule governing the structure of a transition
SWIFT: Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication
TACT: The Air Cargo Tariff. Rules, regulations and rates published for international air shipments.
TBO: Time Between Overhauls.
TCAS: Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System.
Terminal: A building on an airport which links airside and landside, through which cargo being flown or received is stored, consolidations built up or broken down and/or cargo is transhipped
TEU: Twenty Feet Equivalent Unit
Term of Sales: The point at which sellers have fulfilled their obligations so the goods in a legal sense could be said to have been delivered to the buyer. They are shorthand expressions that set out the rights and obligations of each party when it comes to transporting the goods. Following, are the thirteen terms of sale in international trade as Terms of Sale reflected in the recent amendment to the International chamber of Commerce Terms of Trade (INCOTERMS), effective July 1990:
–EXW (Ex Works): A Term of Sale which means that the seller fulfills the obligation to deliver when he or she has made the goods available at his/her premises (i.e., works, factory, warehouse, etc.) to the buyer. In particular, the seller is not responsible for loading the goods in the vehicle provided by the buyer or for clearing the goods for export, unless otherwise agreed. The buyer bears all costs and risks involved in taking the goods from the seller’s premises to the desired destination. This term thus represents the minimum obligation for the seller.
–FCA (Free Carrier): A Term of Sale which means the seller fulfills their obligation when he or she has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the named place or point. If no precise point is indicated by the buyer, the seller may choose, within the place or range stipulated, where the carrier should take the goods into their charge.
–FAS (Free Alongside Ship): A Term of Sale which means the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been placed alongside the vessel on the quay or in lighters at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that moment.
–FOB (Free On Board): An International Term of Sale that means the seller fulfills his or her obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks to loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
–CFR (Cost and Freight): A Term of Sale where the seller pays the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination, Terms of Sale but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as (continued) well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered on board the vessel, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
–CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight): A Term of Sale where the seller has the same obligations as under the CFR but also has to procure marine insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The CIF term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
–CPT (Carriage Paid To): A Term of Sale which means the seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered to the carrier, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been delivered into the custody of the carrier. If subsequent carriers are used for the carriage to the agreed upon destination, the risk passes when the goods have been delivered to the first carrier. The CPT term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
–CIP (Carriage and Insurance Paid To): A Term of Sale which means the seller has the same obligations as under CPT, but with the addition that the seller has to procure cargo insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under the CIP term the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum coverage. The CIP term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.
–DAF (Delivered At Frontier): A Term of Sale which means the sellers fulfill their obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available, cleared for export, at the named point and placed at the frontier, but before the customs Terms of Sale border of the adjoining country.
–DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid): A Term of Sale where the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto (excluding duties, taxes and other official charges payable upon importation) as well as the costs and risks of carrying out customs formalities. The buyer has to pay any additional costs and to bear any risks caused by failure to clear the goods for in time.
–DDP (Delivered Duty paid): “Delivered Duty Paid” means that the seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the risks and costs, including duties, taxes and other charges of delivering the goods thereto, clear for importation. While the EXW term represents the minimum obligation for the seller, DDP represents the maximum.
–DES (Delivered Ex Ship): A Term of Sale where the seller fulfills his/her obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available to the buyer on board the ship, uncleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the named port destination.
–DEQ (Delivered Ex Quay, [Duty Paid]): A Term of Sale which means the DDU term has been fulfilled when the goods have been available to the buyer on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination, cleared for importation. The seller has to bear all risks and costs including duties, taxes and other charges of delivering the goods thereto.
THC: Terminal Handling Charge – levied by shipping companies and reflects the local port costs of stevedoring.
Through Cargo: Cargo staying on board at a stopping place en-route for ongoing carrier on the same flight.
Through Rate: The total rate from the point of origin to final destination
Tonne-kilometre: One tonne of cargo transported one kilometre.
Touch and go: An operation by an aircraft that lands and departs on a runway without stopping or exiting the runway.
Touchdown: The point at which an aircraft first makes contact with the landing surface.
TRANSFER: Movement of cargo from one carrier to another against transfer manifest.
TRANSFERRING CARRIER: The participating carrier transferring the consignment to another carrier at a transit point.
TRANSSHIPMENT: The unloading of cargo from one flight and loading onto another for onward carriage or to transfer goods from one transportation line to another, or from one ship to another.
TRANSIT CARGO: Cargo arriving at a point and departing by another flight.
Transit zone: Area where cargo arriving from a first country remains airside at an airport prior to an international flight to a third country. Such an area is not subject to Customs.
Transporter: A self-propelled vehicle equipped with a powered roller platform for hauling ULDs between the cargo terminal and the loader at the aircraft and vice versa.
TRM: Transfer Manifest. The document executed by the transferring carrier upon transfer of interline cargo and endorsed by the receiving carrier as a receipt for the consignment transferred.
Truck-mounted stairs: Stairs mounted on a truck capable of being moved to an aircraft’s side to facilitate crew and passenger boarding or disembarking.
Turnaround: Time between the moment aircraft engines are stopped at the terminal or ramp, the ground support operations are completed, the next load of cargo is stowed and the engines are started for next flight. Not to be confused with downtime.
UBC: Unaccompanied Courier Bag
UCR: ULD CONTROL RECEIPT. A voucher of transfer ULD signed by transferring and receiving carriers which is used to retrieve ULD and for account settlement of ULD demurrage.
ULD: UNIT LOAD DEVICE. A container or pallet used to transport cargo on an aircraft.
UN/CEFACT: United Nations / Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business
UWS: ULD/Bulk Load Weight Statement
UN number: Four-digit number assigned to dangerous substances by the UN. Assists safe handling of such items. See also Dangerous goods.
VAL: Valuable Cargo. Shipments of high value requiring advance arrangement and special handling
VAN: Value added network
WCO: World Customs Organization
W/M: Abbreviation for “Weight or Measurement;” the basis for assessing freight charges. Also known as “worm.” The rate charged under W/M will be whichever produces the highest revenue between the weight of the shipment and the measure of the shipment.
Wharfage: Charge assessed by a pier or dock owner against freight handled over the pier or dock or against a steamship company using the pier or dock.
X: Rate class code indicating ULD additional information and being used in the rate class box of the AWB
XML: eXtensible Markup Language. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that provides a platform- and application-neutral format for describing data.
Y: Rate class code indicating ULD discount as used in the rate class box of the AWB
Zulu Time (GMT): Reference Google. Zulu” time is that which is more commonly know as “GMT” (Greenwich Mean Time) or time at the Zero Meridian.. Our natural concept of time is linked to the rotation of the earth and we define the length of the day as the 24 hours it takes (on average) the earth to spin once on its axis.
As time pieces became more accurate and communication became global, there needed to be a point from which all other world times were based. Since Great Britain was the world’s foremost maritime power when the concept of latitude and longitude came to be, the starting point for designating longitude was the “prime meridian” which is zero degrees and runs through the Royal Greenwich Observatory, in Greenwich, England.
When the concept of time zones was introduced, the “starting” point for calculating the different time zones was agreed to be the Royal Greenwich Observatory.
Unfortunately the Earth does not rotate at exactly a constant rate. Due to various scientific reasons and increased accuracy in measuring the earth’s rotation, a new timescale, called Universal Time Coordinated or Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), has been adopted and replaces the term GMT.
The Navy, as well as civil aviation, uses the letter “Z” (phonetically “Zulu”) to refer to the time at the prime meridian.
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